Fire protection, fire detection, and fire extinction
Fire can be devastating on a ship – particularly on a passenger ship, where large numbers of people may need to be evacuated, or on a ship carrying inflammable cargo, with serious risks to crew members or o ports and harbors.
On 1 July 2002, a comprehensive new set of requirements for fire protection, fire detection, and fire extinction on board ships entered into force as a new revised chapter II-2 of the international convention for the safety of life at sea(SOLAS), 1974, as amended. Incorporation technological
advances in fire detection and extinction as well as lessons learned from fire incidents over the years.
The regulations are designed to ensure that fires are first of all prevented from occurring for example by making sure that materials such as carpets and wall coverings are strictly controlled to reduce the fire risk; secondly, that any fires are rapidly detected; and thirdly; that any fire is contained and extinguished. Designing ships to ensure easy evacuation routes for crew and passengers is a key element of the chapter.
History of SOLAS fire protection requirements
1914 and 1929 SOLAS conventions
The first protection requirements for international shipping were developed as part of the 1914 SOLAS convention, which was developed in response to the sinking of the Titanic in 1912.
Although the 1914 SOLAS convention was prevented from coming into force due to World War I, it did contain basic fire safety requirements which were later carried over to the 1929 SOLAS convention.
1948 and 1929 SOLAS conventions
After the adoption of the 1929 SOLAS convention, many lessons were learned about the safety of shipping in general, including fire protection, which led to the adoption of the 1948 SOLAS convention. In 1934, a fire aboard the passenger ship Morro Castle caused 134 casualties. The
investigation of the Morro Castle fire, and the lessons learned from it, played a major part in the development of the non-combustible.
Construction regulations today form the basis of the safety regulations for passenger ships.
In addition, many advances in maritime technology were made during world II and subsequently incorporated into the 1948 SOLAS convention.
As a result, a created emphasis was placed on fire safety aboard ships and this was demonstrated by the development of three new parts (parts D, E, and F) being added to chapter II of the 1948 SOLAS convention which was exclusively dedicated to fire safety. In addition, the SOLAS
1948 requirements applied t both passenger ships and cargo ships.
The 1948 SOLAS convention established three methods of construction for passenger ships and basic fire protection requirements for cargo ships. The 1948 SOLAS convention was eventually updated with the 1960 SOLAS convention, related to fire safety, which was the application of certain passenger ship fire safety requirements to cargo ships.
1974 SOLAS Convention
While the SOLAS conventions of 1914, 1929, 1948, and 1960 did contain fire safety requirements, they proved inadequate for passenger ships. In the 1960s, a series of fires aboard international passenger ships highlighted many problems, and, as a result, many changes were incorporated into the 1974 SOLAS convention. The 1974 SOLAS convention (which came into effect in 1980 and is still in force today, as amended) separated the fire requirements into a separate chapter: SOLAS chapter II (construction) of the 1960 SOLAS convention was divided into two new chapters: chapter II-1 on construction-structure, subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical requirements, and chapter II-2 on construction – fire detection and fire extinction.
The 1974 SOLAS required all new passenger ships to be built of non-combustible materials and to have either a fixed fire sprinkler system or fixed fire detection system installed. Requirements for cargo ships were also updated with special regulations for specific types of cargo ships such as tankers.
The 1981 amendments, which entered into force on 1 September 1984, completely revised SOLAS chapter II-2. The amendments included the requirements of resolutions A.327( IX) recommendation concerning fire safety requirements for passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers( incorporated in MSC.1 (XLV), adopted in 1975, and respectively, provisions for halogenated hydrocarbon fire extinguishing systems and a new regulation 62 on inert gas systems.
1990 Scandinavian star and the 1992 fire safety amendments
In 1990, a fire aboard the Scandinavian star passenger ship left 158 persons dead.
The incident raised a number of issues relating to fire protection and evacuation.
In December 1992, IMO adopted a comprehensive set of fire safety amendments, applicable to both new and existing passenger ships. The amendments required the installation of the latest fire safety features applicable to any modern hotel such as automatic sprinkler and smoke detection systems, the upgrading of fire safety bulkheads to non-combustible materials, and improved methods for assisting escaping persons, such as the use of low location lighting.
Also in 1992, the sub-committee on fire protection agreed to undertake a comprehensive revision of SOLAS chapter II-2 as it was felt that the adoption, over a number of years, of various sets of amendments, made the chapter difficult to use and implement. Technological advancements and lessons learned from accidents, since the chapter’s last revision in 1981, required new provisions to be added and for existing requirements to be modified. However, the latest amendments, but entirely new structures for SOLAS chapter II-2 will better accommodate the way port and flag states and ship designers deal with fire safety issues in the future.
In particular, the existing chapter had many vague phrases such as “to the satisfaction of the administration” or “a means shall be provided”. In fact, there were over200 such phrases used throughout the chapter. In addition, the existing chapter had no support structure to accommodate novel designs and features and there was little focus on the human element, an issue which is now receiving a great deal of attention given that 80% of maritime casualty is attributed to human factors.
1996 amendments and international code for application of fire test procedures (FTP code)
The 1996 amendments to SOLAS chapter II-2 -which entered into force in1998- included changes to the general introduction, part B ( fire safety measures for passenger ships), and part C( fire safety measures for tankers).
A new international code for the application of fire test procedures was also developed and made mandatory on 1 July 1998. The code is for use by administrations when approving products for installation in ships flying their flag.
The FTP code provides international requirements for laboratory testing, type approval and fire
test procedures for the:
• non-combustibility test;
• smoke and toxicity test ;
• test for “A”,”B” and “F” class divisions;
• test for fire door control systems;
• test for surface flammability;
• test for primary deck covering;
• test for vertically supported textiles and films;
• test for upholstered furniture; and
• test for bedding components.
In December 2000, IMO adopted a completely revised SOLAS chapter II-2 which entered into force on 1 July 2002.
The new structure focuses on the “fire scenario process” rather than on ship type, as the previous SOLAS chapter II-2 was structure. Thus, the regulations start with prevention, detection, and suppression following all the way through to escape. In addition, to make the revised SOLAS
chapter II-2 more user-friendly, specific system-related technical requirements have been moved to the new international fire safety systems code and each regulation has a purpose statement and functional requirements to assist port and flag states.
The revised SOLAS chapter II-2 has a new part E that deals exclusively whit the human element matter such as training, drill, and maintenance issues, and new part F that sets out a methodology for approving alternative(or novel) designs and arrangements.
International fire safety systems (FSS) code
Some of the original technical provisions were transferred from the convention to the international fire safety systems (FSS) code, and many others are spelled out in great detail in the code. The main reason behind having a separate code was to separate carriage and other statutory
requirements, which clearing belongs in the convention and is meant for the administration from purely technical provisions, which are better suited for the code and may be applied in a more user-friendly manner by equipment manufacturers, systems engineers, etc.
The purpose of the FSS code is therefore to provide international standards for fire safety systems required by revised SOLAS chapter II-2, under which it is made mandatory. The FSS consists of 15 chapters, each addressing specific systems and arrangements, except for chapter l
which contains several definitions and also general requirements for approval of alternative and toxic extinguishing media.
Application of chapter II-2 existing ships
The new chapter II-2 applies to ships constructed on or after 1 July 2002. However, the chapter also applies built before that date as indicated below:
• All ships which undergo repairs, alterations, modifications, and outfitting related thereto shall continue to comply with at least the requirements previously applicable to these ships. Such ships, if constructed before 1 July 2002, shall, as a rule, comply with the requirements for ships constructed on or after that date to at least the same extent as they did before undergoing such repairs, alterations, modifications, or outfitting.( Regulation 1.3.1)
• Repairs, alterations, and modifications which substantially alter the dimensions of a ship or the passenger accommodation spaces, or substantially increase a ship’s service life and outfitting related thereto shall meet the requirements for ships constructed on or after
1 July 2002 in so far as the Administration deems reasonable and practicable. ( Regulation 1.3.2)
• Combination Carriers constructed before, on, or after 1 July 2002 hall does not carry cargos other than oil unless all cargo spaces are empty of oil and gas- freed o unless the arrangements provided in each case have been approved by the Administration taking into account the guidelines developed by the Organization( Guidelines for inert gas systems (MSC/Circ.353), as amended by MSC/Circ. 387 1.6.5)
• In cargo pump-rooms in tankers, temperature sensing devices for bulkhead shaft glands, bearing, and pump casings shall be fitted; all pump- rooms shall be provided with bilge level monitoring devices together with appropriately located alarms; and a system for continuous monitoring of the concentration of hydrocarbon gases shall be fitted on all tanker constructed before 1 July 2002 by the date of the first scheduled dry-docking after 1 July 2002, but not later than 1 July 2005. ( Regulation 1.6.7)
• Emergency escape breathing devices EEBD)– All existing ships must have these fitted not later than the date of the first survey after 1 July 2002 as follows: all ships shall carry at least two emergency escape breathing devices within accommodation spaces; in passenger ships, at least two emergency escape breathing devices shall be carried in each main vertical zone; in passengers, ships carrying more than 36 passengers,
two emergency escape breathing devices, in addition to those required above, shall be carried in each main vertical zone (Regulations 184.108.40.206 to 220.127.116.11 – certain exemptions apply – see regulation 18.104.22.168) On all ships, within the machinery spaces, emergency escape breathing devices shall be situated ready for use at easily visible places, which can be reached quickly and easily at any t the event of a fire. The location of emergency escape breathing devices must take into account the layout of the machinery space and the number of persons normally working in the spaces. The number and location of EEBDs must be indicated in the fire control plan and they must comply with the Fire Safety Systems Code (regulation 13.4.3, which refers to the Guidelines for the performance, location, use, and care of emergency escape devices (MSC/ Circ.849).)
• Parts E Operational requirements – All existing ships must comply with Part E (except regulations 22.214.171.124 – relating to inert gas systems, as appropriate) not later than the date of the first survey after 1 July 2002. Part E includes regulation 14 on Operational readiness and maintenance; regulation 15 on instructions, onboard training, and drills; and regulation 16 on Operations.
• For new installations only on existing ships: Fire – extinguishing systems using Halon 1211, 1301, and 2402 and perfluorocarbons are prohibited for new installations. ( Regulation 10.4.1.3)
• Deep-fat cooking equipment- for new installations on existing ships, the fire extinguishing systems for deep-fat cooking equipment must comply with regulation 10.6.4, including the requirements for automatic or manual extinguishing systems; a primary and backup thermostat with an alarm; arrangements for automatically shutting off the electrical power upon activation of extinguishing systems: an alarm for indicating operation of the extinguishing systems in the galley where the equipment is installed; and controls for manual operation of the extinguishing systems which are clearly labeled for ready use by the crew. ( The regulation refers to the recommendations by the International Organization for Standardization, in particular, Publication ISO 15371:2000 on fire- extinguishing systems for the protection of galley deep-fat cooking equipment)
• Passenger ships of 2000 gross tonnage and above must comply not later than 1 October 2005 with regulations for fixed local application fire-fighting systems ( regulation 10.5.6). The regulations require certain machinery spaces above 500 m3 in volume to be protected by an approved type of fixed water-based or equivalent local application fire-fighting system. The regulation refers to Guidelines for the approval of fixed water-based local application fire-fighting systems for use in category A machinery spaces (MSC/ Circ.913). Fixed local application fire-fighting systems are to protect areas such as the following without the necessity of engine shutdown, personnel evacuation, or
sealing of the spaces: the fire hazard portions of internal combustion machinery used for the ship’s main propulsion and power generation; boiler fronts; the fire hazard portions of incinerators; and purifiers for heated fuel oil.
CONSTRUCTION- FIRE PROTECTION, FIRE DETECTION, AND FIRE EXTINCTION
Regulation 1– Application- The chapter applies to ships built on or after 1 July 2002. Ships constructed before that date should comply with the chapter in force prior to 1 July 2002, however, there are some requirements for existing ships in the revised chapter.
Regulation 2– Fire safety objectives and functional requirements- Provides the fire safety objectives and functional requirements for the chapter.
Regulation 3 – Definitions- Gives definitions of terms used in the chapter.
PREVENTION OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION
Regulation 4 – Probability of ignition- The purpose of this regulation is to prevent the ignition of combustible materials or flammable liquids.
Regulation 5– Fire growth potential- The purpose of this regulation is to limit the fire growth potential in every space of the ship.
Regulation 6-Smoke generation potential and toxicity-The purpose of this regulation are to reduce the hazard to life from smoke and toxic products generated during a fire in spaces where persons normally work or live.
SUPPRESSION OF FIRE
Regulation 7– Detection and alarm – The purpose of this regulation is to detect fire in the space of origin and to provide for alarm for safe escape and fire-fighting activities.
Regulation 8– Control of smoke spread- The purpose of this regulation is to control the spread of smoke in order to minimize the hazards from smoke.
Regulation 9– Containment of fire- The purpose of this regulation is to contain a fire in the space of origin.
Regulation 10– Firefighting – The purpose of this regulation is to suppress and swiftly extinguish a fire in the space of origin.
Regulation 11– Structural integrity -The purpose of this regulation is to maintain structural integrity by preventing the partial or whole collapse of the ship structures due to strength deterioration by heat.
Regulation 12– Notification of crew and passengers-The purpose of this regulation is to notify crew and passengers of fire for safe evacuation.
Regulation 13– Means of escape- The purpose of this regulation is to provide means of escape so that persons onboard can safely and swiftly escape to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation deck.
Regulation 14– Operational readiness and maintenance-The purpose of this regulation are to maintain and monitor the effectiveness of the fire safety measures the ship is provided with.
Regulation 15– Instructions, onboard training, and drills-The purpose of this regulation are to mitigate the consequences of fire by means of proper instructions for training and drills for persons onboard responsible for carrying out ship procedures under emergency conditions.
Regulation 16– Operational-The purpose of this regulation is to provide information and instructions for proper ship and cargo handling in relation to fire safety.
ALTERNATIVE DESIGN AND ARRANGEMENTS
Regulation 17 – Alternative design and arrangements- The purpose of this regulation is to provide a methodology for approving alternative designs and arrangements for fire safety.
Regulation 18– Helicopter facilities-The purpose of this regulation is to provide additional measures in order to address the fire safety objectives of this chapter for sips fitted with special facilities for helicopters.
Regulation 19– Carriage of dangerous goods – The purpose of this regulation is to provide additional safety measures in order to address the fire safety objectives of this chapter for ships carrying dangerous goods.
Regulation 20 -Protection of vehicle, special category, and ro-ro spaces- The purpose of this regulation is to provide additional safety measures in order to address the fire safety objectives of this chapter for ships fitted with vehicles, special category, and ro-ro spaces.
Fire test laboratories
IMO issues annually a circular containing a list of recognized by the Administration, which are able to conduct fire tests in accordance with the provisions of the International Code for Application of Fire Test Procedures (FTP Code).
Halon banking and reception facilities
IMO annually issues a circular containing a list of halon banking and reception facilities, to facilitate the deposit of decommissioned halons or the purchase of recycled halons.
The following publications are available from IMO: SOLAS Amendments 2000- includes the revised chapter II-2, making the International Code Fire Safety Systems (FSS Code), adopted by the MSC by resolution MSC .98 (73), mandatory under SOLAS.